Functional programming (FP) is a declarative programming paradigm. It is usually contrasted with the more well-known alternative – the imperative programming paradigm, in particular – object-oriented programming (OOP). FP is an approach to the development of computer programs, in which the primary tool is mathematical functions. The main task of FP is to eliminate various side effects. Moreover, we are talking about pure functions, whose result depends solely on the input data.
Example of a pure function: sine or cosinе. Its stable fluctuation reminds me of the steady waves, the best attribute for surfing training. Regardless of the various circumstances, the trajectory does not change.
The meaning of functional programming is that we do not set the sequence of commands but describe the interaction between them and subroutines. For complicated tasks, it helps FP programmers to provide more flexible and scalable solutions.
For example, in OOP, you need to set objects and rules for their interaction, but you can also write just code that is not tied to objects. It seems to stand aside and affect the operation of the program as a whole-sends some objects to interact with others, processes some results, and so on. Functional programming goes even further here. In it, all the code is the rules for working with data. Just set the necessary rules, and the machine itself understands how to apply them.
More and more companies and programmers are beginning to use functional programming in their daily activities and develop and improve various projects. Check what notable projects were written in functional languages.
The most popular languages are Rust, Haskell, Agda, Fuchsia, but there are others. New languages are also being developed that should combine the advantages of the existing languages and minimize their current weak sides.
Pros of functional programming languages
The most attractive advantage is the reduction of the code (multiplicity). Because of this, in the end, it makes it easier to review, test, modify, and, finally, to execute the required task.
Concurrency is also an essential factor. The compiler in functional programming takes over most of the operations, previously required manual configuration.
Most functional languages support lazy evaluation, which provides additional benefits.
The benefits of functional programming for business
Thanks to functional programming languages, it is possible to create a unique project that will meet all the modern requirements imposed by end-users to the business. At the same time, the creation of such projects does not require high financial costs but requires a team of specialists who know all the nuances of programming and will allow you to translate all the desires into reality. Such a command is ………., they create various unique programs in a short time and taking into account the wishes of customers, which develop the customer’s business and are liked by users who use these programs. Ultimately, this raises the ratings and popularity of the company, which can not affect the final profit.
For business, the use of FP-based programs provides the following advantages:
– increase the speed of execution of various processes,
– provides opportunities for future modification and scaling;
– increase data safety by providing more secure software solutions.
Projects written in Rust
Although Rust was initially developed as a system programming language, eventually, its development allowed it to become a truly universal language. It has the following advantages:
The compiler offers the more straightforward error detection, as well as some options for their elimination,
– Lightweight manual control of the program logic, which is achieved thanks to abstraction,
– No segmentation errors, which results in safe operation with memory.
– Excellent compatibility with various systems.
This language can be used in various fields, namely:
– programming of client applications and web servers,
– writing your own operating systems,
– writing programs and applications for monitoring systems and servers,
– software and infrastructure development,
– writing engines for various browsers, as well as games.
The most significant projects that used Rust:
– Coursera (educational portal),
– Exonum (framework for creating blockchain projects),
– Redox (an operating system based on a microkernel. The big part of the software for this operating system is written in Rust),
– Servo (Mozilla) browser engine with support for multithreading,
– Discord (the most popular messenger among gamers).
This programming language is actively developing, and many companies and programmers see the future in this language.
Projects written in Haskell
Haskell gives the developer a lot of new tools, namely:
– clean functions,
– algebraic data types,
– slim type system,
– excellent type inference,
– functional-declarative code style.
Now many concepts are flowing there, as they have proven their usefulness.
Basically, Haskell is used in several ways:
– Web development, especially in the financial sector. Various financial companies and banks actively use it to develop custom tools to improve the quality of customer service and increase transaction speed.
– Writing tools for text processing and parsing. Various synonymizers, as well as sites that check the grammar and punctuation of the text.
– Create tools for testing code in other programming languages.
The most significant projects that used Haskell:
– Facebook (used internally as tools),
– CircuitHub (the primary services and algorithms use the Haskell language),
– Bank of America Merrill Lynch (data is converted and loaded from the server using this language),
– AT&T (the network security division uses this language to automatically handle abuse complaints on the Internet).
– Target (one of the largest supermarket chains). Applies the language in the data processing department to solve the problem with undefined queries.
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